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Title: Non-simulator-based techniques in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy for medical students: a systematic review
Authors: Samaranayake, U.M.J.E.
Mathangasinghe, Yasith
Samaranayake, U.M.N.P.
Wijayatunga, Manawattalage
Keywords: education
medical students
ophthalmoscopy skills
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Citation: Samaranayake, U. M. J. E., Mathangasinghe, Y., Samaranayake, U. M. N. P., & Wijayatunga, M. (2020). Non-simulator-based techniques in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy for medical students: a systematic review. International journal of ophthalmology, 13(4), 660.
Abstract: Non-simulator-based examination methods of the fundal examination have shown to be cost-effective. We reviewed different non-simulator-based direct fundoscopy examination methods used in undergraduate curricula and their outcomes. PubMed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using standard Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms ophthalmoscopy, medical education, undergraduate medical education, medical student, educational assessment and learning. The search included publications until 28th February 2019. We obtained 34 articles after screening abstracts; of them, 12 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. The studies were comprised of diverse teaching methods which included fundal photograph matching with corresponding eye, continuous education using community-based eye clinics, formal instructions and demonstrations prior to skills training, ophthalmoscopy skills practice using eye pathologies, teaching versus conventional ophthalmoscopy and group-based teaching. We concluded that non-simulator-based techniques such as use of fundal photograph matching of an eye of a volunteer, introduction to eye pathologies, smaller student groups and formal instructions with video demonstrations prior to skills training were highly effective in teaching direct ophthalmoscopy for undergraduate medical students.
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